What is Renewable Energy?
Renewable energy often referred to as clean energy, comes from natural sources or processes that are constantly refilled.
Green energy is any type of Energy which is generated from natural resources, such as sunlight, wind or water. It often comes from renewable energy sources although there are some differences between renewable and green energy. These energy resources didn’t harm the environment through factors such as
releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
Types of Green Energy
There are six most common types of green energy.
- Solar Power: Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics, indirectly using concentrated solar power or a combination. Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and solar tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.
- Wind Power: The process of creating electricity using the wind, or air flows that occur naturally in the earth’s
atmosphere. Modern wind turbines are used to capture kinetic energy from the wind and generate electricity.
- Hydro Energy: Hydroelectric energy is also known as hydroelectric power or hydroelectricity is a form of energy that harnesses the power of water in motion such as water flowing over a Stream, Rivers, and Waterfalls to generate electricity.
- Geothermal Energy: Heat that is stored inside the earth is transformed into electrical energy by geothermal power plants. This form of energy is considered to be cost-effective, reliable, and friendly to the environment.
- Biomass Energy: Any organic material that can be burned and used as a source of fuel. Biomass power plants use wood waste, sawdust, and combustible organic agricultural waste to create energy. While the burning of these materials releases greenhouse gas these emissions are still far lower than those from petroleum-based fuels.
- Biofuels: Biofuels is a collective term for liquid fuels derived from renewable sources, including ethanol, biodiesel, and other renewable liquid fuels.
Environmental Impact of Solar Energy:
Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable, and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. Solar energy systems provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to conventional energy sources. These systems have some minor negative impacts on the environment during their production and operation. This
study presents an overview of some positive impacts of the solar energy systems and negative impacts covered by an environmental impact assessment.
Net metering is an electricity billing mechanism that allows consumers who generate some or all of their own electricity to use that electricity anytime, instead of when it is generated. This is particularly important with renewable energy sources like wind and solar, which are non-dispatched.
Types of Panels, Components, and Installation:
There are three types of Solar Panels:
- Monocrystalline: A monocrystalline solar panel is a solar panel comprising monocrystalline solar cells. These cells are made from a cylindrical silicon ingot grown from a single crystal of silicon of high purity in the same way as a semiconductor. The cylindrical ingot is sliced into wafers forming cells.
- Polycrystalline: Polycrystalline is also known as Multicrystalline solar panels are solar panels that consist of
several crystals of silicon in a single PV cell. Several fragments of silicon are melted together to form the wafers of
polycrystalline solar panels. These solar panels absorb energy from the sun and convert it into electricity.
- Thin-film: A thin-film solar cell is a second-generation solar cell that is made by depositing one or more thin layers, or thin film of photovoltaic material on a substrate, such as glass, plastic or metal.
• PV Modules
• PV Inverter
• Junction Boxes – “DCDB & ACDB”
• Earthing Rods
• Bonding of the exposed metallic structure of solar PV
system to lightning earth
➢ Set your budget and select allocation
➢ Determine the energy requirement and estimate the size of
➢ Perform a site survey for space needed, and access for
➢ Engage a licensed electrical worker if your proposed solar
➢ Select a PV module type and mounting method
➢ Select inverter to match PV array
➢ Finalise the mounting system
➢ Ensure there are fixing and mounting points available
➢ Ensure the Structure for mounting is safe
➢ Ensure Solar access
➢ Ensure all PV modules connected to the same inverter face
the same direction
➢ Ensure PV modules are mounted at an incline for selfcleaning
➢ Ensure sufficient ventilation space behind the PV array for
➢ Determine if a lightning protection system is needed
➢ Ensure the PV module frame is earthed
➢ Finalise the Inverter and AC wiring system
➢ cables must be properly connected, secured, and routed
➢ Ensure continuity and insulation tests are done
➢ Completion of testing and system commissioning
➢proper system, documentation/manual handover to
- Solar PV On-grid System:
• The Sun Shines on the Solar panels generating DC
• The DC electricity is fed into a solar inverter that converts it
to 240 V 50 Hz AC electricity.
• The 240V AC electricity is used to power appliances in your
• Surplus electricity is fed back into the main grid.
- Solar PV Off-grid System:
• Off-grid Solar power also stores DC electricity in batteries.
• The addition of an inverter allows this system to convert
DC electrical current coming from the batteries into AC or
• AC electricity is used to power appliances in your home.
- Solar PV Hybrid System:
• Hybrid solar systems generate power in the same way as a
common grid-tie solar system but use batteries to store
energy for later use.
• This ability to store energy enables most hybrid systems to
also operate as a backup power supply during a blackout,
similar to a UPS system.
- Solar AC water pump system:
• The Sun shines on the solar panels generating DC
• The DC electricity is fed into a solar inverter that converts it
to AC POWER.
• AC electricity is given to the AC water pump.
• With/without grid connection to run AC water pump.
- Solar Pumpset with Brushless DC ( BLDC) motor :
• This work deals with the utilization of solar photovoltaic.
• Energy in the BLDC motor-driven water pump.
• The speed control of the BLDC motor is performed by PWM
(pulse width modulation).
• Control of the voltage source inverter (VSI) using.
- Solar street lights:
• The PV panels charge a rechargeable battery which powers
fluorescent or LED lamp during the night.
• The energy generated during day time will be stored in
the batteries and will be used when there is low light.
- Solar water heater:
• The sun’s thermal energy heats the fluid in the solar
• Then, this fluid passes through a heat exchanger in the
storage tank, transferring the heat to the water.
- Charge Controllers:
• A charge controller, charge regulator, or battery regulator
limits the rate at which electric current is added to or
drawn from electric batteries.
• It prevents overcharging and may protect against
overvoltage, without this it will reduce battery
performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety risk
- Solar Lanterns:
• Solar lanterns are usually used outdoors to provide lighting
in the garden or driveway or for other outdoors activities
such as marine or camping applications.
- Solar Inverters/Controllers/VFD:
• Inverter to converts DC to AC.
• Solar VFD controllers solar provides water in remote by
converting high voltage Direct Current (DC) from a solar
panel into Alternating Current (AC) to run a standard AC
Benefits of rooftop solar panels in India:
a. It is a Secure Investment.
b. It increases access to Energy.
c. Support from the Government.
d. Reduces Carbon Footprints.
e. Green Source of Energy.
f. Low Maintenance Cost.
g. Cost Saving.
h. Suitable for Indian Climate.
i. It doesn’t require additional space for installation.
j. Multiple applications of solar power.